# Answers to the checkpoints of chapter 8

Checkpoint 1

Hypotheses about differences between more than two groups.

• The test statistic is F.
• The F value gets bigger.
• The p value gets smaller. This means that the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis increases.

Checkpoint 2

• By deducting 1 from the number of groups being compared.
• The number of observations – the number of groups.
• The groups must be independent, the measurement level must be nominal and variances must be equal. The variable must be dependent and at least have an interval measurement level.
• No, the F curve is asymmetrical and right skewed. Only data about right-tailed probability values is given.

Checkpoint 3

• In regression analysis, an F test  is used to test whether the explained variance is greater than zero.
• If p < 0.05, you can conclude that the explained variance deviates significantly from zero. In statistical terms: βk> 0 applies to at least one group.
• The t test.

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